Publication Ethics

Ethical Guideline for Journal Publication

Peer-reviewing in the Journal of  Transformasi Global is a crucial step for creating a logical and reputable network of knowledge. It is an accurate representation of the quality level of the writer's and the organization's supporting efforts. The scientific method is supported and embodied in peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish guidelines for acceptable ethical behavior for each of the following parties: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher, and the publishing society. 

As the publisher of the Journal of Transformasi Global (JTG), Universitas Brawijaya notices its ethical and other responsibilities and takes very seriously its managerial duties over all stages of publishing. We are dedicated to making sure that editorial choices are made without any influence or impact from advertising, reprints, or other commercial money. Additionally, where appropriate and required, the Editorial Board and Department of International Relations at Universitas Brawijaya will support communications with other publications and/or publishers. 

Publication Decisions

The editors of Transformasi Global must ensure that publications are subjected to peer review by a minimum of two knowledgeable field reviewers for every manuscript submitted and accepted for publication. Selecting which of the manuscripts submitted to the journal will be published is the editor's job. This choice is based on the publication's significance to readers, its legitimacy, the feedback from reviewers, and the laws that are currently in effect with regard to plagiarism, libel, and copyright violations. The editor may also decide on this after consulting with additional editors and reviewers. 

Fair Play

Editors evaluate submitted manuscripts primarily on the basis of academic merit, which includes clarity, importance, originality, validity, and relevance to the journal's scope. They do not take into consideration the authors' race, gender, citizenship, political philosophy, ethnicity, or religious beliefs. The decision to publish or edit any publication is made independently by the journal and is not influenced by government policies or other organizations. The Principal Editor has complete control over the schedule and content of any content that is published, including timing.


Information regarding a submitted manuscript should only be shared with publishers, corresponding authors, reviewers, prospective reviewers, and other editorial advisers as needed; under no circumstances should the Editor or any member of his editorial staff share this information.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Editors would not, for any reason, provide unpublished information about a submitted manuscript to third parties without the written consent of the author. For personal reasons, the Editor is required to keep all privileged information from the received manuscript confidential and free from any misconduct. The author(s) should assign the manuscript to the editorial board in cases where the editor believes that there is a conflict of interest due to a collaborative, competitive, or other reason.

Management of Unethical Behaviors

When it comes to ethical concerns about a submitted manuscript as well as an article that has been published, the editors and publishers are obligated to respond in an amicable way. Even if unethical publishing practices are found after a publication, they will all be investigated.


Duties of Author

Reporting Standards

Authors of original research are obligated to provide an accurate description of their work and results, followed by an objective discussion of the work's importance. There should be enough information and citations to enable other people to duplicate the work. Review articles, however, should to be thorough and precise. Any inaccurate claims are inappropriate conduct.

Data Access and Retention

Authors are required to submit corresponding initial data for editorial reviews for each paper they submit. Public access would also be made available along with this, and the data used for the paper would need to be remained for a fair amount of time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Every author is required to provide only original content, with proper citation and quotation marks for other people's writings. Plagiarism can be defined as unethical publishing behavior, and it is unacceptable in all forms, from paraphrasing and copying another author's work without giving credit to passing off another person's work as your own. Turnitin, a plagiarism detector, would be used to review each manuscript to make sure each piece is genuine and exclusive. Make sure you are aware that each article you submit will have an author statement confirming to the fact that there is no plagiarism of any kind in the publication.

Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publications

It is inappropriate to submit a manuscript that discusses the same research, publications in multiple journals, or primary publications. Consequently, it is unacceptable to resubmit the previously published manuscript because this is considered unethical publishing behavior.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Every other person's work that authors use must be properly acknowledged, and the publications that prompted the classification of the reported work's nature must be cited. Any information that is obtained in private, whether through conversations, letters, or discussions with third parties, should not be disclosed without the source's express written consent. Authors must obtain written consent from the authors of the works they use for these services before using any information they learn from sharing confidential information, such as grant applications and manuscript referrals.

Authorship of the Paper

The authorship should only be highlighted for those who contributed a substantial contribution to the planning, execution, design, and justification of the study that has been reported. All those who have made a contribution, no matter how small, ought to be identified as co-authors. It is important to recognize those who have contributed to the research's practical aspects. In order to consent to the submission and subsequent publication of the paper, the corresponding author must guarantee that all co-authors have viewed and approved the final version.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author finds a significant mistake in a published work, they have an obligation to notify the journal editor or publisher so that the paper can be corrected and retracted. In the event that an error is discovered by a third party, the author is required to either eliminate the publication, correct the issue, or provide proof that the edited paper is accurate.

Declaration of Competing Interest

To avoid the perception of inappropriate impact on their work, the author should declare all personal and financial relationships with other people and organizations. All sources of funding used to support your research and write your article should be acknowledged, as should the involvement of any sponsors, if any, in the data collection, analysis, and interpretation phases of writing and choosing which publications to submit. If there is no relationship between the funding source(s) and the publication, then this should be indicated otherwise. The paper template or manuscript must contain a declaration of competing interests from the authors.

Image Integrity

It is inappropriate to add, move, remove, obscure, or enhance a particular feature in an image. Adjusting an image's contrast, color balance, and color balance is acceptable as long as it doesn't remove or obscure any information from the original. It is acceptable to manipulate an image for clarity, but anything beyond that would be considered scientific or ethical abuse and would be handled appropriately. Authors should adhere to any graphic image policies implemented by pertinent journals, such as supplying images as supplemental material or depositing images in an appropriate repository.


Duties of Reviewer

The collaboration of Editorial Decisions

Peer review is responsible for both editorial decision-making and the enhancement of the paper through editorial communication. One of the most crucial responsibilities of the company's review section is this task.


Any chosen referee who feels unqualified to review research or who knows that their prompt review will not be possible should inform the editor and withdraw from the review and editing process.


Each manuscript that is sent for evaluation is an internal document that needs to be handled with confidentiality. For whatever reason, it should not be shown or discussed by other experts.

Standards of Objectivity

The review process ought to be executed impartially. Instead of making personal attacks, the reviewer ought to clearly highlight each opinion or comment and provide evidence for it.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Every important, published work that the reviewer did not cite should be located. Every statement containing a derivation, argument, or statement that has been previously reported should have a pertinent citation accompanying it. If the Editor knows of any similarities between the manuscript under consideration and any other publication, they should be notified of them.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

It is preferable to keep ideas or privileged information learned through peer reviews private rather than exploiting them for one's own gain. Manuscripts involving authors, organizations, or companies that are connected to the papers, or those involving collaboration or competition, should not be considered for consideration by reviewers.