Pandemi dan Krisis Multidimensi: Studi Kasus Permasalahan Gender di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19
AbstractThis paper emphasizes that the Covid-19 pandemic is not just a health issue. It has caused a global economic crisis and most importantly a negative impact on gender inequality. The data was collected mainly from the UN Women and projected using content-analysis methods. Using a gender perspective, this study explains that the gender issues as a result of this crisis arise from economic activities that are not distributed fairly. In turn, this has spread to social lives of men and women with significantly more exposed women which are enforced in almost all countries. Job losses and the quality of life for both men and women have decreased. They are forced to make ends meet with increasingly limited resources. This can hamper the ongoing efforts on women's rights fulfilment and gender equality.
ABC News. 2020. â€œUnemployment Forecast to Soar to Highest Rate in Almost 30 Years.â€ Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-13/coronavirus-unemployment-Covid-19-treasury-figures-jobless-rate/12145542).
AusÃn, Berta, Clara GonzÃ¡lez-Sanguino, Miguel Ãngel Castellanos, dan Manuel MuÃ±oz. 2021. â€œGender-Related Differences in the Psychological Impact of Confinement as a Consequence of Covid-19 in Spain.â€ Journal of Gender Studies 30(1):29â€“38. doi: 10.1080/09589236.2020.1799768.
Azcona, Ginette, Antra Bhatt, dan Serge Kapto. 2020. â€œThe Covid-19 Boomerang Effect: New Forecasts Predict Sharp Increases in Female Poverty.â€ UN Women. Diambil 27 Maret 2021 (https://data.unwomen.org/features/Covid-19-boomerang-effect-new-forecasts-predict-sharp-increases-female-poverty).
Care. 2020. â€œNew Study: Covid-19 condemns millions of women to poverty, when they could be a solution to prosperity.â€ Care International. Diambil 6 Maret 2021 (https://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/new-study-Covid-19-condemns-millions-of-women-to-poverty-when-they-could-be-a-solution-to-prosperity).
Carlson, Daniel L., Richard Petts, dan Joanna R. Pepin. 2020. Changes in Parentsâ€™ Domestic Labor During the Covid-19 Pandemic. preprint. SocArXiv.
Chawla, Megha, Prapti Sahni, dan Kamayani Sadhwani. 2020. â€œCan Covid-19 Be the Turning Point for Women Entrepreneurs in India?â€ Bain. Diambil 16 Februari 2021 (https://www.bain.com/insights/can-Covid-19-be-the-turning-point-for-women-entrepreneurs-in-india/).
CNN. 2020. â€œGlobal famines of â€˜biblical proportionsâ€™ will be caused by coronavirus pandemic, UN warns.â€ Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/22/africa/coronavirus-famine-un-warning-intl/index.html).
Collins, Caitlyn, Liana Christin Landivar, Leah Ruppanner, dan William J. Scarborough. 2021. â€œCOVIDâ€19 and the Gender Gap in Work Hours.â€ Gender, Work & Organization 28(S1):101â€“12. doi: 10.1111/gwao.12506.
Coskun, Sena, dan Husnu Dalgic. 2020. The Emergence of Procyclical Fertility: The Role of Gender Differences in Employment Risk. University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
Cousins, Sophie. 2020. â€œCovid-19 Has â€˜Devastatingâ€™ Effect on Women and Girls.â€ The Lancet 396(10247):301â€“2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31679-2.
Dan, Avi. 2020. â€œConsumer Attitudes And Behavior Will Change In The Recession, And Persist When It Ends.â€ Forbes. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.forbes.com/sites/avidan/2020/04/13/consumer-attitudes-and-behavior-will-change-in-the-recession-and-persist-when-it-ends/).
Doepke, Matthias, dan MichÃ¨le Tertilt. 2016. â€œFamilies in macroeconomics.â€ Hlm. 1789â€“1891 dalam Handbook of macroeconomics. Vol. 2. Elsevier.
Elson, Diane. 2010. â€œGender and the global economic crisis in developing countries: a framework for analysis.â€ Gender & Development 18(2):201â€“12.
Gaetano, Chris. 2020. â€œIMF Says â€˜Great Lockdownâ€™ Worst Recession Since Depression, Far Worse Than Last Crisis.â€ Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.nysscpa.org/news/publications/the-trusted-professional/article/imf-says-%27great-lockdown%27-worst-recession-since-depression-far-worse-than-last-crisis-041420).
Goolsbee, Austan, dan Chad Syverson. 2021. â€œFear, Lockdown, and Diversion: Comparing Drivers of Pandemic Economic Decline 2020.â€ Journal of Public Economics 193:104311. doi: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104311.
Hafi, Bishurul, dan Na Uvais. 2020. â€œDifficulties Faced by Sexual and Gender Minorities during COVIDâ€19 Crisis.â€ Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 74(8):444â€“444. doi: 10.1111/pcn.13080.
Horesh, Danny, Rony Kapel Levâ€Ari, dan Ilanit Hassonâ€Ohayon. 2020. â€œRisk Factors for Psychological Distress during the COVIDâ€19 Pandemic in Israel: Loneliness, Age, Gender, and Health Status Play an Important Role.â€ British Journal of Health Psychology 25(4):925â€“33. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12455.
IFC. 2020. â€œGendered Impacts of Covid-19 on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Sri Lanka.â€ IFC. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/REGION__EXT_Content/IFC_External_Corporate_Site/South+Asia/Resources/Gendered+Impacts+of+COVID19+on+Small+and+Medium+Sized+Enterprises+in+Sri+Lanka).
ILO. 2020. â€œCovid-19 Causes Devastating Losses in Working Hours and Employment.â€ Diambil 13 Maret 2021 (http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_740893/lang--en/index.htm).
IMF. 2020. â€œWorld Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Crisis Like No Other, An Uncertain Recovery.â€ IMF. Diambil 11 Maret 2021 (https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/06/24/WEOUpdateJune2020).
Jin, Jian-Min, Peng Bai, Wei He, Fei Wu, Xiao-Fang Liu, De-Min Han, Shi Liu, dan Jin-Kui Yang. 2020. â€œGender Differences in Patients With Covid-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality.â€ Frontiers in Public Health 8:152. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00152.
Knowles, James, Ernesto Pernia, dan Mary Racelis. 1999. â€œSocial consequences of the financial crisis in Asia.â€
McFall-Johnsen, Morgan, Juliana Kaplan, dan Lauren Frias. 2020. â€œOur Ongoing List of How Countries Are Reopening, and Which Ones Remain under Lockdown.â€ Business Insider Australia. Diambil 10 Maret 2021 (https://www.businessinsider.com.au/countries-on-lockdown-coronavirus-italy-2020-3).
McKinsey & Company. 2020. â€œCovid-19 and Gender Equality: Countering the Regressive Effects.â€ McKinsey & Company. Diambil 13 Maret 2021 (http://ceros.mckinsey.com/coronavirus-promo-video-desktop).
Oxfam. 2019. â€œCare Work Feminist Scorecard.â€ Oxfam Canada. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.oxfam.ca/feminist-policy-scorecard-2019/care-work/).
Perrett, Connor. 2020. â€œNearly 60% of people who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic are women, according to report.â€ Business Insider. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.businessinsider.com/coronavirus-unemployment-women-60-percent-2020-4).
Power, K., 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 16(1), pp.67-73.
Reddock, Rhoda, Elsa Goveia, M. G. Smith, Lloyd Best, dan W. G. Demas. 2009. â€œWhat now for Caribbean people and their leaders? Reflections on the current economic and social crisis: A gender perspective.â€
Rocha, Mercedes GonzÃ¡lez de la. 1988. â€œEconomic Crisis, Domestic Reorganisation and Womenâ€™s Work in Guadalajara, Mexico.â€ Bulletin of Latin American Research 7(2):207â€“23. doi: 10.2307/3338289.
Samuelson, Robert J. 2020. â€œOpinion | What the Crash of 2020 Means.â€ Washington Post, Maret 12.
Schuberth, Helene, dan Brigitte Young. 2011. â€œThe role of gender in governance of the financial sector.â€ Questioning financial governance from a feminist perspective 9:132.
Scipioni, Jade. 2020. â€œWhy There Will Soon Be Tons of Toilet Paper, and What Food May Be Scarce, According to Supply Chain Experts.â€ CNBC. Diambil 1 Maret 2021 (https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/18/supply-chain-experts-foods-that-could-be-less-available-in-pandemic.html).
Seck, P.A., Encarnacion, J.O., Tinonin, C. and Duerto-Valero, S., 2021. Gendered Impacts of COVID-19 in Asia and the Pacific: Early Evidence on Deepening Socioeconomic Inequalities in Paid and Unpaid Work. Feminist Economics, 27(1-2), pp.117-132.
The Guardian. 2019. â€œNations Must Unite to Halt Global Economic Slowdown, Says New IMF Head.â€ The Guardian. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (http://www.theguardian.com/business/2019/oct/08/nations-must-unite-halt-global-economic-slowdown-new-imf-head-kristalina-georgieva).
The Guardian, Larry. 2020. â€œâ€˜Great Lockdownâ€™ to Rival Great Depression with 3% Hit to Global Economy, Says IMF.â€ The Guardian. Diambil 16 Januari 2021 (http://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/apr/14/great-lockdown-coronavirus-to-rival-great-depression-with-3-hit-to-global-economy-says-imf).
UN Women. 2020a. â€œEmpower Women - Covid-19 and Gender Equality: A Call to Action for the Private Sector.â€ EmpowerWomen. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.empowerwomen.org/en/resources/documents/2020/04/Covid-19-and-gender-equality-a-call-to-action-for-the-private-sector?lang=en).
UN Women. 2020b. From Insights to Action: Gender Equality in the Wake of Covid-19. UN Women.
UN Women. 2020c. â€œThe Covid-19 Shadow Pandemic: Domestic Violence in the World of Work - A Call to Action for the Private Sector | WEPs.â€ Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.weps.org/resource/Covid-19-shadow-pandemic-domestic-violence-world-work-call-action-private-sector).
UN Women. 2020d. The impact of COVID-19 on women. United Nations entity for gender equality and the empowerment of women (UN Women). United Nations Secretariat. Diambil 29 April 2021 (https://www. unwomen. org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2020/policy-brief-the-impact-of-COVID-19-on-women-en. Pdf).
WHO. 2020. â€œWHO Director-Generalâ€™s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on Covid-19 - 11 March 2020.â€ World Health Organization. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-Covid-19---11-march-2020).
Williams, Sean. 2020. â€œStock Market Crash 2020: Everything You Need to Know.â€ The Motley Fool. Diambil 16 Maret 2021 (https://www.fool.com/investing/2020/03/10/stock-market-crash-2020-everything-you-need-to-kno.aspx).