Majuro Declaration: “Kudeta” Kepemimpinan Isu Perubahan Iklim

Muhammad Riza Hanafi

Abstract


Ketika negara-negara besar tak lagi bersedia memimpin penanganan terhadap isu perubahan iklim, negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik memproklamirkan diri sebagai pemimpin. Bagi mereka, “To lead is to act,” memimpin adalah dengan bertindak. Melalui Majuro Declaration negara-negara tersebut tidak hanya menyatakan kepemimpinannya namun juga menyatakan komitmennya untuk melakukan tindakan nyata dalam mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca. Hanya saja, deklarasi ini ironis mengingat bahwa negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik adalah salah satu penyumbang emisi gas rumah kaca terkecil di dunia namun paling rentan perubahan iklim. Jika produksi emisi gas rumah kaca tetap pada laju seperti sekarang maka kenaikan tinggi air laut dipastikan akan menenggelamkan sebagian dari wilayah mereka. Berharap pada negara-negara maju untuk “memimpin” dunia mengatasi perubahan iklim bukan perkara mudah. Kisah “tragis” Protokol Kyoto yang “ditinggalkan” oleh negara-negara emiter besar membuktikan teorema realis bahwa setiap negara hanya membela kepentingannya masing-masing. Deklarasi Majuro adalah penegasan terhadap posisi mereka, soft power mereka, sebagai pihak yang memiliki legitimasi dan otoritas moral untuk berseru agar dunia serius mengatasi perubahan iklim.


Kata kunci: Perubahan iklim, Kepulauan Pasifik, soft power, Majuro Declaration


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonim, 2013, Kiribati island: Sinking into the sea? BBC, 25 November 2013, diunduh dari http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-25086963 pada 1 April 2014

Anonim, 2009, ‘Climate Change Threatens Tuvalu’s Survival, Says Prime Minister Apisai Ielemia’, Press Release Parlemen Uni Eropa, Service of the European Parliament diunduh dari http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+IM-PRESS+20091207IPR66100+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN pada 12 Januari 2012.

Anonim, Tuvalu’s Views on the Possible Security Implications of Climate Change to be included in the report of the UN Secretary General to the UN General Assembly 64th Session, diunduh dari http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/resources/res_pdfs/ga-64/cc-inputs/Tuvalu_CCIS.pdf pada 9 September 2015

Armandhanu, Denny dan Indrani Putri, 2011, Kanada Mundur dari Protokol Kyoto, Vivanews, 13 Desember 2011, diunduh dari http://dunia.news.viva.co.id/news/read/271892-kanada-mundur-dari-protokol-kyoto pada 6 Mei 2015.

Associated Press in Majuro, 2015, Marshall Islands face acute water shortage, The Guardian online, 10 Mei 2013, diunduh dari http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/10/marshall-islands-acute-water-shortage pada 13 September 2015.

Brown, Chris dan Kirsten Ainley, Understanding International Relations (3rd ed.), Palgrave MacMillan, New York: 2005

Brown, Oli, 2008, Migration and Climate Change, International Organization for Migration (IOM) Migration Research Series, Jenewa, diunduh dari http://www.iom.int pada 1 April 2014

Burns, William C. G., 2003, “The Impact of Climate Change on Pacific Island Developing Countries in the 21st Century”, in Alexander Gillespie and William C.G. Burns (eds.), Climate Change in the South Pacific: Impacts and Responses in Australia, New Zealand, and Small Island States, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York

Caballero-Anthony, Mely and P. K. Hangzo, 2013, RSIS Singapore: niche diplomacy through water expertise, 31 January 2013

Caramel, Laurence, 2014, Besieged by the rising tides of climate change, Kiribati buys land in Fiji, the Guardian online, 1 July 2014, diunduh dari http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/01/kiribati-climate-change-fiji-vanua-levu pada 12 Agustus 2015.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 2011, International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative: Pacific Climate Change Science Program, diunduh dari http://www.pacificclimatechangescience.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/4_PCCSP_Tuvalu_8pp.pdf pada 15 September 2015

Dorney, Sean, 2013 Forum Pasifik bertekad pimpin dunia hadapi perubahan iklim, Radio Australia, 6 September 2013, diunduh dari http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/indonesian/2013-09-06/forum-pasifik-bertekad-pimpin-dunia-hadapi-perubahan-iklim/1186927 pada 6 Mei 2015

Firth, Stewart, 2000, ‘Decolonisation’, dalam Robert Borofsky (ed.), Remembrance of Pacific Pasts, Honolulu, University of Hawai’i Press,

Friedman, Thomas L., 2009, Hot, Flat and Crowded: Mengapa Dunia Memerlukan Revolusi Hijau – dan Bagaimana Kita Memperbarui Masa Depan Global Kita (terj), Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Gillet, Robert. 2011. Fisheries of the Pacific Islands Regional and National Information. http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2092e/i2092e00.pdf. Diakses 21 Mei 2012.

Glosserman, Brad, 2003, Truth or Propaganda? , South China Morning Post 5 juni 2003. Didownload dari www.library.unsw.edu.au bulan Juli 2003

Hau’ofa, Epeli, 1998, ‘The Ocean In Us’, The Contemporary Pacific, 10:2, Fall

Henrikson, Alan K, 2005, Niche Diplomacy in the World of Public Arena: the Global ‘Corners’ of Canada and Norway, dalam Jan Melissen (ed.), The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations, Palgrave Macmilan

http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2013/01/31/singapore-niche-diplomacy-through-water-expertise/ pada 13 September 2013

Kegley, Charles W., Jr and Eugene R. Wittkopf, 1996, American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process, St. Martin Press, New York

Kirby, Alex, 1999, Islands disappear under rising seas, BBC News 14 Juni 1999, diunduh dari http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/368892.stm pada 13 Agustus 2015

Knox, Angie, 2002, Sinking Feeling in Tuvalu, BBC News 28 Agustus 2002, diunduh dari http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2219001.stm pada pada 13 Agustus 2015

Leoni, Brigitte, Migration not a matter of choice but survival, says Kiribati President, The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, 15 Maret 2012, diunduh dari http://www.unisdr.org/archive/25649 pada 1 April 2014

Leppman, Elizabeth J., 2006, Australia And The Pacific, Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia

MAJURO, REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS, 3 – 5 SEPTEMBER 2013, diunduh dari http://www.forumsec.org/resources/uploads/attachments/documents/2013_Forum_Communique_Final.pdf 28 September 2015

Marks, Kathy, 2015, Climate change talks our 'last chance', say Pacific islands: 'This is not politics, it's surviva, Independent online 7 Septembr 2015, diunduh dari http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/climate-change-talks-our-last-chance-say-pacific-islands-this-is-not-politics-its-survival-10490376.html pada 10 Oktober 2015

Mas’oed, Mochtar, 1990, Ilmu Hubungan Internasional: Disiplin dan Metodologi, edisi kedua. LP3ES,Jakarta

Microsoft Encarta Premium, 2009

Mimura, Nobuo, 1999, Vulnerability of Island Countries in the South Pacific to Sea Level Rise and Climate Change, CLIMATE RESEARCH, Vol. 12: 137–143

Morgenthou, Hans J., 1955, Politic Among Nation, Alfred Knopf, New York

Nye, Joseph S.,Jr, 2004, “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics,” Public Affairs Book, New York.

---------------, 2008, “Public Diplomacy and Soft Power”, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, 2013, Forum Communique, FORTY-FOURTH PACIFIC ISLANDS FORUM

---------------, About Us, diunduh dari http://www.forumsec.org/pages.cfm/about-us/ pada 15 Agustus 2015.

Papp, Daniel S., 2001, Contemporary International Relation: Framework for Understanding(6th Edition), Longman, New York

Republik Marshal Islands, 2015, Press Release: Climate Change Battering the Marshall Islands, Yokwe Online 23 Juni 2013, diunduh dari http://www.yokwe.net/index.php?module=News&func=display&sid=3187 pada 13 September 2013

Satish Chand, Economic challenges, Australia Strategic Policy Institution, 2008, Australia and the South Pacific: Rising to the challenge, Special Reports, Issue 12, March. Diunduh dari https://www.aspi.org.au/publications/special-report-issue-12-australia-and-the-south-pacific-rising-to-the-challenge/SR12_Australia_SouthPacific_V2.pdf pada 15 Januari 2015

South, Robin G dan Joeli Veitayaki, 1999, Global Initiative in the South Pacific: Regional Approaches to Workable Arrangements, Asia Pacific Press at the Australian National University, Canberra lihat juga DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS, Agreement establishing the

South Pacific Commission, AUSTRALIAN TREATY SERIES 1948 No. 15 diunduh dari http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1948/15.html pada 10 September 2015

The World Bank, Environment, diunduh dari http://data.worldbank.org/topic/environment pada 10 September 2015.

van Wyk, Jo-Ansie, 2012, Nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy: South Africa's post-apartheid relations with the International Atomic Energy Agency, South African Journal of International Affairs, 19:2

Vidal, John, 2013, 'We are fighting for survival,' Pacific islands leader warns Atolls are at risk of becoming uninhabitable as sea levels rise,

Marshall islands president will tell summit, The Observer, 1 September 2013, diunduh dari http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/sep/01/pacific-islands-climate-change pada 1 April 2014

Vogler, John, 2008, “Environmental Issues”, in John Baylis et. al (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations (fourth editions), Oxford University Press, Oxford

Wesley-Smith, Terence, 2007, ‘Self-Determination in Oceania’, Race and Class, 48:


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Transformasi Global