Operation Protective Edge Israel pada Perang Gaza 2014: Justifikasi Pelanggaran Hukum Humaniter Internasional dalam Prinsip Just War

Dyah Lupita

Abstract


Perang Gaza 2014 merupakan konflik bersenjata ketiga yang terbesar antara Israel dan Hamas di Jalur Gaza. Hamas menembakkan sejumlah roket dan mortir ke wilayah-wilayah strategis di Israel. Israel kemudian meluncurkan Operation Protective Edge sebagai bentuk manifestasi serangan balasannya terhadap Hamas. Penggunaan kekuatan militer oleh kedua pihak menyebabkan collateral damage yang sangat besar, khususnya di Jalur Gaza. Dalam pelaksanaannya, Operation Protective Edge dianggap melanggar Hukum Humaniter Internasional dan tidak sesuai dengan prinsip-prinisip dalam Just War. Dengan mendasarkan analisa pada prinsip Just War, tulisan ini akan menjelaskan mengapa pelanggaran terhadap Hukum Humaniter Internasional dalam Operation Protective Edge dapat dijustifikasi sehingga tidak dianggap sebagai kejahatan perang? Argumen dalam tulisan ini meliputi: 1) Operation Protective Edge merupakan operasi militer yang proporsional; 2) perang yang terjadi antara Israel-Hamas adalah konflik asimetris; 3) dukungan Amerika yang didasarkan pada resolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB sehingga Israel tidak dianggap melakukan kejahatan perang.

Kata kunci: Israel, Hamas, Operation Protective Edge, Just War, Jus ad bellum, Jus in bello, proportionality, asymmetric conflict, United States.


Full Text:

Pdf

References


“Germany Condemns Rocket Attacks on Israel,” Press and Information Office of the Federal Government (10 Juli 2014), http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/EN/Artikel/2014/07_en/2014-07- 10-krise-nahost_en.html, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017.

Gaza War Assessment: The New Face of Conflict, A report by the JINSA- commissioned Gaza Conflict Task Force March 2015

Amnesty International (2015) Unlawful and Deadly: Rocket and Mortat Attacks by Palestinian Armed Groups during the 2014 Gaza/Israel Conflict, United Kingdom: Amnesty International Publications.

Anthony H. Cordesman (2015) “The War Against the Islamic State: The Challenge of Civilian Casualties,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, http://csis.org/publication/war-against-islamic-state-challenge- civilian-casualties, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017

David Cameron MP, “PM Call with Israeli Prime Minister,” Prime Minister’s Office” (9 Juli 2014) https://www.gov. uk/government/news/pm-call-with- israeli-prime-minister, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017.

Dekel, Udi (2014) “Operation Protective Edge: Strategic and Tactical Asymmetry,” Tel Aviv: INSS

Erakat, Noura (2014) “Humanitarian law and Operation Protective Edge: a survey of violations and remedies”, Noref Expert Analysis: 2.

Gross, Michael L. (2009) “Asymmetric War, Symmetrical Intentions: Killing Civilians in Modern Armed Conflict”, Global Crime, 10:4

High Level Military Group (2015) “An Assessment of the 2014 Gaza Conflict”, Friends of Israel Initiative

Hirsh Goodman and Dore Gold (2015) “The Gaza War 2014: The War Israel Did Not Want and the Disaster It Averted, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

John Baird, “Baird Condemns Hamas Rocket Attacks on Israel,” (8 Juli 2014), http://johnbaird. com/2014/07/09/baird-condemns-hamas-rocket-attacks- on-israel/, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017.

Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (2014)

“Hamas and the Other Terrorist Organizations in the Gaza Strip Use Medical Facilities and Ambulances for MilitaryTerrorist Purposes,”, (23 Juli 2014).

Moore, John Norton (2012) “Jus Ad Bellum Before the International Court of Justice” 52 VA.J.INT’L L.

Nidal al-Mughrabi and Ori Lewis, “Hamas Rockets Land Deep in Israel as It Bombards Gaza Strip,” (Reuters, 8 Juli 8 2014), http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/08/us-palestinians-israel- idUSKBN0FC0JP20140708, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017

OCHA, “Humanitarian Bulletin” (Desember 2014), http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_the_humanitarian_monitor_ 2014_01_27_english.pdf, diakses pada 18 Mei 2017

OCHA, “Protection of Civilians Weekly Report 28 October - 3 November 2014” (7 November 2014), http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_protection_of_civilians_wee kly_report_2014_11_07_english.pdf, diakses pada 18 Mei 2017.

Pokrzywinsky, Pawel (2015) “The Second Lebanon War and the Operation Protective/ Tzuk Eitan as Examples of Asymmetric Conflicts in the Middle East”, Journal of Science of the Military Academy of Land Forces, 47/3: 177

Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, “Statement Attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on Violence in Gaza and Southern Israel,” United Nations, (8 Juli 2014), http://www.un.org/sg/statements/index.asp?nid=7846, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017.

Senior U.S. National Security Official. Interview. November 4, 2015 dalam Time for a Change: The Role of the United States in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

The Gaza War 2014: The War Israel Did Not Want and the Disaster It Averted Hirsh Goodman and Dore Gold, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs,

The State of Israel (2015) “The 2014 Gaza Conflict 7 July-26 August 2014: Factual and Legal Aspect”

UN Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) (2014) “Addendum to Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the implementation of Human Rights Council Resolutions S-9/1 and S-12/1: The human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory between 12 June and 26 August 2014, including the escalation of hostilities between the State of Israel and Palestinian armed groups in Gaza,”, 28/80: 8.

UN Human Rights Council, “Ensuring Respect for International Law in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem” (23 Juli 2014), http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/SpecialSession/S ession21/A-HRC-RES-S-21-1_en.doc, diakses pada 18 Mei 2017

UN Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004) of October 8, 2004, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/un/66959.htm , diakses pada 23 Mei 2017

UN Security Council Resolutions 1269 (1999) of October 15, 1999, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/un/5110.htm diakses pada 23 Mei 2017

Ward, Hazel “Israel, Hamas Face Off in New Gaza Conflict,” AFP, (8 Juli 2014), http://news.yahoo.com/israel-hamas-faceoff-gaza-conflict- 203639358.html, diakses pada 23 Mei 2017


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Transformasi Global