Respon Rusia terhadap Pembangunan Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Amerika Serikat di Eropa Tahun 2007-2013


  • Kharisma Ridho Anugrah Universitas Brawijaya



The dynamics of bilateral relations between United States and Russia is characterized by confrontation and rivalry patterns, thus an aggressive action done by one party will stimulate strategic response of other party. In the early 2000’s, United States stimulated tension with Russia through its policy to build Its Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) in European Countries such as Poland, Czech, Romania, Turkey, and Mediterranean Sea. This policy was interpreted as a threat by Russia, and as Its strategic response, Russia strengthened Its alliance with Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) through formation of military cooperation named Collective Rapid Reaction Force (CRRF).

This research will discuss about how is Russian response to offset threat presented by United States through Its BMD in Europe. This research uses Balance of Threat Theory (BoT) by Stephen M. Walt as main analysis tools. Through the operationalization of BoT’s variables such as aggregate power, geographical proximity, offensive power, and aggressive intention, this research is able to explain the United States’ source of threat to Russia and determine Its response to offset this threat in form of alliance, whether balancing or bandwagoning.

Keywords: Threat, Alliance, Balancing, Bandwagoning, United States, Russia


Arms Control. n.d. The European Phased Adaptive Approach at a Glance. Accessed April 18, 2016.

Blair, Dennis C. 2008. Strategic Asia: Challenges and Choices. Seattle: The Nationa Bureau of Asian Research.

Burns, Richard Dean . 2010. The Missile Defense System of George W. Bush A Critical Assessment. Santa Barbara California: Praeger Security International

CIA Factbook. n.d. Europe Political Map. Accessed April 18, 2016.

CSTO. n.d. Basic Facts. Accessed March 20, 2016.

CSTO Secretariat. 2009. Collective Rapid Reaction Forces of the Organization of Collective Security Treaty. Moscow: CSTO Secretariat

Dyner, Anna Maria. 2013. "The Russian-Belarusian “West 2013†Exercise: An Alliance against External Enemies?" The Bulletin Polish Institute of International Affairs 102 (555). Accessed June 1, 2016.

European Parliament. n.d. "Russian Reaction to NATO Missile Defense." Library of the European Parliament. Accessed March 20, 2016.

Global Fire Power. n.d. Land Power. Accessed May 22, 2016.

—. n.d. Russia Military Strength. Accessed May 17, 2016.

—. n.d. Sea Power. Accessed May 27, 2016.

—. n.d. United States Military Strength. Accessed May 17, 2016.

Herpen, Marcel H. Van . 2011. Russia’s Embrace of Tactical Nuclear Weapons. Paris: The Cicero Foundation. Accessed May 30, 2016. 175.

James Town Foundation. n.d. What Do the Zapad 2013 Exercises Reveal? (Part Two). Accessed June 1, 2016.

Kremlin. n.d. News Conference on CSTO Collective Security Council Session Results. Accessed May 29, 2016.

Lambeth, Benjamin S. . 1999. The Role of Air Power Going Into The 21st Century. Seoul: Center for International Studies Yonsei University. Accessed May 27, 2016.

McDermott, Roger . 2009. "Zapad 2009 Rehearses Countering a NATO Attack on Belarus." The James Town Foundation 6 (179).

Missile Defense Advocacy. n.d. The European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA). Accessed March 1, 2016.

NATO. n.d. Allied Leaders Agree on NATO Missile Defense System. Accessed February 22, 2016.

Official Website of Republic of Belarus. n.d. Lukashenko to attend CSTO summit in Sochi 23 September. Accessed May 29, 2016.

Offiziere. n.d. "Comparison of Russian Military Doctrine 1993, 2000, 2010 and 2014." Accessed February 27, 2016. 171.

OSW. n.d. West 2013’: the Belarusian and Russian armies’ anti-NATO integration exercise. Accessed May 30, 2016.

Razanov, Anatoliy A., and Alena F. Douhan. 2013. Collective Security Treaty Organization 2002-2012. Geneva: The Geneva Centre for The Democratic Control of Armed Force.

Regional Intelligence. n.d. Missile Defense Timeline. Accessed March 20, 2016.

—. n.d. U.S. Withdrawal From the ABM Treaty: President Bush’s Remarks and U.S. Diplomatic Notes. Accessed May 14, 2016.

Reuters. n.d. Russia has stationed Iskander missiles in western region: reports. Accessed May 20, 2016.

Rusia and India Report. n.d. CSTO emerging as an alternative to NATO. Accessed March 20, 2016.

Sergounin, Alexander. 2000. "Russia and the European Union: The Case of Kaliningrad." PONARS Policy Memo 172: 1-2. Accessed June 12, 2016.

Shvarev, Vladimir . n.d. "Russian Opinion on European BMD." Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. Accessed May 14, 2016.

SIPRI. n.d. SIPRI Military Expenditure Database. Accessed May 18, 2016.

SputnikNews. n.d. Russia Demonstrates Military Machismo in west 2009 war games. Accessed May 30, 2016.

The Economist. n.d. War Games. Accessed June 1, 2016.

The Telegraph. n.d. Russia 'simulates' nuclear attack on Poland. Accessed May 29, 2016.

—. n.d. Russian general says Poland a nuclear 'target'. Accessed May 29, 2016. White Hose. n.d. President Bush Visits

National Defense University, Discusses Global War on Terror. Accessed April 18, 2016.

The World Bank. n.d. Armed Forces Personnel, total. Accessed May 16, 2016.

—.. n.d. Country Comparison: Population. Accessed May 12, 2016.

—. n.d. Labor Force, Total. Accessed May 12, 2016.

—. n.d. Gross Domestic Product. Accessed May 13, 2016.

—. n.d. GDP Growth (annual %). Accessed May 15, 2016.

Time and Date. n.d. Distance from Kaliningad to Warsaw. Accessed May 16, 2016.

—. n.d. Distance from Moscow to Bucharest. Accessed May 16, 2016.

—. n.d. Distance from Moscow to Prague. Accessed May 16, 2016.

—. n.d. Distance from Moscow to Washinton D.C. Accessed May 16, 2016.

U.S Department of Defense. n.d. "Dictionary of Military and Associated term." U.S Departement of Defense. Accessed March 21, 2016.

Walt, Stephen M. . 1987. The Origin of Alliance. New York: Cornell University Press

Zdanavicius, Liudas, and Matthew Czekaj. 2015. Zapad 2013 Military Exercise: Lesson for Baltic Regional Security. Washinton D.C: The Jamestown Foundation.