SYMBOLIC PRODUCTION OF COFFEE-DRINKING: GENEALOGY, PROBLEMATIZATION AND THE CASE OF CORDILLERA COFFEE
AbstractThis paper explores the genealogy of coffee-drinking and how it has changed through history with particularly focus on the problematization of coffee as a â€˜culturalâ€™ symbol for people in different parts of the World and in different historic periods and locate the contemporary symbolic production of coffee as a â€˜development projectâ€™ in the case of the Cordillera region in the Philippines. From the first glance, the political economy and culture of coffee-drinking for both consumers and producers in any part of the World at its core is local. However, coffee becomes part of the international politics when populations of different local geographic spaces need to interact with each other to continue their â€˜localâ€™ patterns of lifestyle for consumption or production. The international interaction is often expressed through biopolitical hierarchies of interaction between (1) the wealthy populations in the developed countries of Global North with (2) the vulnerable subsistent populations in the underdeveloped countries of Global South. Often these two groups of people have limited knowledge about the context of biopolitical administration of â€˜life processesâ€™ in each geographic space. How is this limitation negotiated and processed through symbolic construction of what â€˜coffeeâ€™ has meant for people through history?
Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
AnaÃ¯s, S. (2013, January ). Genealogy and critical discourse analysis in conversation: texts, discourse, critique . Critical Discourse Studies, 10(2), 123-135. doi:10.1080/17405904.2012.744321
Bernstein, W. (2008). A Splendid Exchange: How trade shaped the World, . New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Casambre, A. L. (2006). Autonomous Regions: The Cordillera Autonomous Region. In N. M. Morada, & T. S. Tadem, Philippine Politics and Governance: An Introduction (pp. 441-458). Quezon City: Department of Political Science, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy.
Clarence-Smith, W. G., & Topik, S. (2003). The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500â€“1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke, G. (2001, June). From Ethnocide to Ethnodevelopment? Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in Southeast Asia. Third World Quarterly, 22(3), 413-436. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3993472
Cordillera Green Network. (2018). Retrieved from Cordillera Green Network: https://www.facebook.com/Cordillera-Green-Network
Department of Agriculture. (2018). Volume of Coffee Production in the Cordillera Autonomous Region by Provinces, Coffee Statistics, Agricultural Statistics. Manila, Philippines: Agricultural Statistics, Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 17, 2018, from http://countrystat.bas.gov.ph/?cont=10&pageid=1&ma=A60PNVOP
Department of Agriculture, Cordillera Administrative Region. (2018, March). Retrieved from Department of Agriculture, Cordillera Administrative Region: http://car.da.gov.ph/index.php/103-ph-coffee-stakeholders-converge-at-3rd-pcc
Duffield, M. (2007). Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Ferrier, R. W. (1996). A Journey to Persia: Jean Chardinâ€™s Portrait of a Seventeenth-century Empire. London and New York: I.B. Tauris and Co ltd.
Fischer, E. F. (2017). Quality and Inequality: Taste, Value, and Power in the Third Wave Coffee Market. Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
Foucault, M. (2008). The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the College de France, 1978-1979 (English Series Editor: Arnold I. Davidson ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Global Coffee Report. (2015). the-philippines-coffee-revolution. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from http://gcrmag.com/market-reports/view/the-philippines-coffee-revolution
Guevara, J. (2017, April 10). What Is â€œThird Wave Coffeeâ€ & How Is It Different to Specialty? The Perfect Daily Grind. Retrieved September 10, 2018, from https://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/04/third-wave-coffee-different-specialty/
Hagan, C. B. (1942, November). Geopolitics. The Journal of Politics, 4(No. 4), 478-490. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2125653
(1994). Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme.
Hyndman, D. (1991). Organic Act Rejected in the Cordillera: Dialectics of a Continuing Forth World Autonomy Movement in the Philippines. Dialectical Anthropology, 16(2), 169-184.
International Coffee Organization. (2018, October 2). Retrieved from International Coffee Organization: http://www.ico.org/
Jaffee, D. (2007). Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival. Berkley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press.
James, D. (2002, September-October). Justice and Java: Coffee in a Fair Trade Market . Retrieved from Global Exchange Website: http://www.globalexchange.org/fairtrade/coffee/starbucks
Kelly, J. (2013, May 23). Coffee addiction: Do people consume too much caffeine. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22530625
Kitchin, R. (2014). Big Data, new epistemologies and paradigms shifts. Big Data & Society, 1-12. doi:10.1177/2053951714528481
Koopman, C. (2013). Genealogy as Critique: Foucault and the problems of modernity. Bloomingtong, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Lemke, T. (2001, May 2). The birth of bio-politicsâ€™:Michel Foucaultâ€™s lecture at the CollÃ¨ge de France on neo-liberal governmentality. Economy and Society , 30(No. 2), 190-207. doi:10.1080 /03085140120042271
Lemke, T., Casper, M., & Moore, L. (2011). Biopolitics: An advanced introduction. New York and London: New York University Press.
Lewis, M. W. (1992). Agricultural Regions in the Philippines Cordillera. Geographical Review, 82(1), 29-42. doi:10.2307/215403
Lovett, R. (2005, September 24). Coffee: the demon drink. New Scientist Magazine(2518). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18725181.700
Macdonald, K. (2007). Globalising justice within coffee supply chains? FairTrade, Starbucks and the transformation of supply chain governance. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 793-812. doi:10.1080/01436590701336663
Malayang III, B. S. (2001). Tenure Rights and Ancestral Domains in the Philippines: A Study of the Roots of Conflict. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 157(3 ), 661-676. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27865768
Manahan, M. A. (2011). Banking on the Rural Poor?: Critical Insights and Policy Questions on Foreign Aid and Agrarian Reform in the Philippines. Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 26(1-2), 312-323.
McHugo, J. (2013, April 18). (18th April 2013). Coffee and qahwa: How a drink for Arab mystics went global. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved March 28, 2016, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22190802
Murekezi, A., Jin, S., & Loveridge, S. (2012). Do organisational forms of the coffee supply chain matter in poverty reduction? Development in Practice, 22(7), 962-977. doi:10.1080/09614524.2012.697127
Neilson, J., & Shonk, F. (2014). Chained to Development? Livelihoods and global value chains in the coffee-producing Toraja region of Indonesia. Australian Geographer,, 45(3), 269-288. doi:10.1080/00049182.2014.929998
Parfitt, T. (2002). The End of Development? Modernity, Post-modernity and Development. London: Pluto Press.
Parfitt, T. (2009, January 1). Are the Third World Poor Homines Sacri? Biopolitics, Sovereignty, and Development. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 34(1), 41-58. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/030437540903400103
Pendergrast, M. (2010). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books.
(2012-2013). Philippine Human Development Report. Geography, Part II: Geography and Human Development in the Philippines. Manila: United National Development Programme.
Prill-Brett, J. (1994). Indigenous Land Rights and Legal Pluralism among Philippine Highlanders, (1994), pp, accessed on 11th August 2013 at. Law & Society Review, 28(3), 687-698. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30540
Richards, J. (2000). Biographical Introduction to Sir John Chardin (1927), Travels in Persia 1673-1677, London: Argonaut Press. University of Washington Website. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/chardin/chardin.h
Rocky Mountain CafÃ© Inc. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility Report: More than just coffee . Rocky Mountain CafÃ© Inc.
Somit, A. (1972, April). Biopolitics. British Journal of Political Science, 2(No. 2), 209-238. Retrieved December 2, 2015, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/193357
Taft, W. H. (1902, September). Political Parties in the Philippines. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 20, 3-8. Retrieved July 2017, 21, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1010036
Taylor, D. (2011). Michel Foucault: Key Concepts. Durham: Acumen Publishing.
Ting Jr., M. T. (2008). Modernity vs. Culture: Protecting the Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines. European Journal of Economic and Political Studies.
Verburg, P. H., Overmars, K. P., & Witte, N. (2004, September). Accessibility and Land-Use Patterns at the Forest Fringe in the Northeastern Part of the Philippine. The Geographical Journal, 170(3), 238-255. Retrieved October 12, 2018, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3451255
Walker, A. (2013, April 17). 1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place. Retrieved September 29, 2018, from BBC News Magazine, Today Programme, BBC Radio 4: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-21859771
Wiber, M. G. (1991, September). Levels of Property Rights, Levels of Law: A Case study from the Northern Philippines. Man, New Series, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 26(3), 464-492. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2803878
Willis, K. (2005). Theories and Practices of Development. Oxon and New York: Routlidge.
Woodside, A. G. (2010). Case Study Research: Theory, Methods, Practice. (UK, North America, Japan, India, China: Emerald Publications.