Publication Ethics

Duties of Editor

Publication Decisions

For all submitted manuscripts being considered for publication, GLOBAL FOCUS editors need to make sure that publications undergo peer review by at least two expert field reviewers. The Editor's responsibility is to decide which of the manuscripts submitted to the journal would be published. This decision is based on the importance of the publication to readers, the publication's validation, the reviewers' comments, and legal requirements currently in force regarding copyright infringements, libel, and plagiarism. This decision can also be made with the Editor deliberating with other reviewers and editors.

Fair Play

The major factors' editors use to evaluate submitted manuscripts is based on academic merit-clarity, importance, originality, validity, as well as its relevance to the scope of the journal without any consideration to the ethnicity, political philosophy, sexual orientation, authors' race, gender, citizenship, institutional affiliation, or religious beliefs. No government policies or agencies outside the journal determine or influence the decision to publish or edit any publication. Full authority over the timing and the full editorial content of the publication of any content is in the Principal Editor's hands.


Under no circumstances should the Editor or any member of his editorial staff disclose information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the publishers, corresponding authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, and other editorial advisers as appropriate.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Without the author's written consent, Editors would not disclose unpublished information about a submitted manuscript to anyone for any reason whatsoever. All of the privileged information received by the Editor from the manuscript received must be kept confidential without any misconduct for personal reasons. For any manuscript where an editor feels that he/she has a conflict of interest, from collaborative, competitive, or other reasons, the author(s) should put the editorial board in charge of it.

Management of Unethical Behaviors

The editors and the publishers should take approachable measures to tackle ethical complaints related to a submitted manuscript or even a published article. Every unethical publishing behavior would be examined even when discovered after a publication.

Duties of Author

Reporting Standards

Original research authors are required to present an accurate account of their work and the results, followed by an unbiased dialogue about the work's significance. There should be sufficient details and references which allow replication of the work by others. On the other hand, review articles should be comprehensive and accurate. Any incorrect statements constitute unacceptable behaviors.

Data Access and Retention

For every submitted paper, authors need to provide connecting raw data for editorial reviews. This would also be accompanied by the provision of public access, and the data used for such paper should be retained for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Every author must provide only original content, and the works and words of others must be well-cited and quoted. For whatever form of plagiarism, from paraphrasing and copying another author's paper – without attribution to passing off another person's work as your own, it is regarded as unethical publishing behavior, and this is unacceptable. Every manuscript would be checked using a plagiarism checker – Turnitin – to ensure every article is original and authentic. Make sure you understand that every submitted article would be accompanied by a statement from the author certifying that the publication is free from plagiarism of any form.

Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publications

A manuscript discussing the same research, publication in more than one journal or primary publication is unacceptable. Therefore, the manuscript that was already published should not be resubmitted as this is deemed unethical publishing behavior, which is intolerable.

Acknowledgment of Sources

For every work of others used by authors, there is a need for proper acknowledgment and the citing of publications that have prompted the determination of the reported work's nature. Every privately obtained information – either from third-party discussions, correspondence, or conversation – should and must not be reported without the source's explicit written permission. Under no circumstances should authors make use of information derived in the course of providing confidential information such as grant applications and referring manuscripts except with the written permission of the authors of such works provided in these services.

Authorship of the Paper

Only individuals who have significant contributions to the design, conception, execution, and explanation of the reported study should be highlighted as part of the authorship. Every person who has contributed in one way or the other should be listed as co-authors. Those who have made contributions in practical aspects of the research should be highlighted as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the paper's final version agreeing to the submission and resulting publication.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

Whenever an author discovers a noteworthy error in his/her published work, the author must promptly notify the publisher or the journal editor where the paper would be retracted and corrected. If a third-party entity notices the error, the author must retract the publication and make the necessary corrections or give the essential information of the correctness of the edited paper.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The author should disclose every personal and financial relationship with other individuals and organizations to prevent them from being perceived as trying to influence their work unsuitably. Every financial support source for the research and preparation of your article should be disclosed and the role of any sponsor(s), if any, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in the writing and decision to submit a publication. This should be stated otherwise if the funding source(s) has no involvement in influencing the publication. There must be a declaration of competing interests by authors in their paper template/manuscript.

Image Integrity

The enhancement, movement, removal, obscurity, and introduction of a specific feature in an image is unacceptable. The adjustment of contrast, color balance, and color balance of an image are acceptable if these actions do not obscure or eliminate any information on the original image. The manipulation of an image for clarity is acceptable, but other than that would be termed as scientific, ethical abuse, which would be dealt with accordingly. Graphic image policies applied by relevant journals, such as providing images as supplementary material or the deposition of images to a suitable repository, should be complied with by authors.

Duties of Reviewer

The collaboration of Editorial Decisions

The making of editorial decisions and the paper's improvement through editorial communication is the job of peer review. This task is one of the most important aspects of the review section of the company.


Any selected referee who knows that his/her prompt review would not be possible or feels unqualified to review research should notify the Editor and therefore excuse himself from the review and editorial process.


Every manuscript received for review is a private document and should be treated as a confidential document. It should not be shown or discussed by other experts for any reason whatsoever.

Standards of Objectivity

The review procedure should be conducted objectively. The reviewer should highlight every view/comment clearly with supporting facts rather than personal criticisms.

Acknowledgment of Sources

The reviewer should identify every relevant and published work not cited by the reviewer. There should be an accompanying relevant citation for every statement that a derivation, argument, or statement has been previously reported. It should be brought to the Editor's attention if there is a similarity between the manuscript in consideration and any other publication of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Ideas or privileged information obtained via peer reviews should remain confidential rather than using it for personal advantages. Reviewers should avoid considering manuscripts in which they have a conflict of interest resulting from collaborative, competitive, or relationships with other companies, authors, or organizations connected to the papers.